Posted: November 10, 2001
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Article SummaryThis EPA booklet has long been out-of-print. It predates my articulation of the hazard-versus-outrage distinction, but contains much of the thinking that went into that distinction. In fact every time I reread this it reminds me of principles and examples I ought to reinstate in my presentations.

Explaining Environmental Risk

TSCA Assistance Office, Office of Toxic Substances
U.S. Enivronmental Protection Agency, November 1986 (booklet)


Covello, Vincent T., “The Perception of Technological Risks: A Literature Review,” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 1983, pp. 285–287.

Covello, Vincent T., Detlof von Winterfeldt, and Paul Slavic, “Communicating Scientific Information about Health and Environmental Risks: Problems and Opportunities from a Social and Behavioral Perspective,” in V. Covello, A. Moghissi, and V.R.R. Uppuluri, Uncertainties in Risk Assessment and Risk Management (New York: Plenum Press, 1986), in press.

Fischhoff, Baruch, “Protocols for Environmental Reporting: What to Ask the Experts,” The Journalist (Foundation for American Communications), Winter 1985, pp. 11–15.

Klaidman, Stephen, “Health Risk Reporting,” Institute for Health Policy Analysis, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, 1985.

Mazur, Allan, “Media Coverage and Public Opinion on Scientific Controversies,” Journal of Communication, 1981, pp. 106–115.

Mazur, Allan, “Bias in Risk-Benefit Analysis,” Technology in Society, 1985, pp. 25–30.

Nelkin, Dorothy, Science in the Streets (New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1984).

President’s Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island, Report of the Public’s Right to Information Task Force (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979).

Ruckelshaus, William, “Risk in a Free Society,” Risk Analysis, September 1984, pp. 157–163.

Sandman, Peter M., “Getting to Maybe: Some Communications Aspects of Hazardous Waste Facility Siting,” Seton Hall Legislative Journal, Spring 1986.

Sandman, Peter M., David B. Sachsman, Michael Greenberg, Mayme Jurkat, Audrey R. Gotsch, and Michael Gochfeld, “Environmental Risk Reporting in New Jersey Newspapers,” Environmental Risk Reporting Project, Department of Journalism and Mass Media, Rutgers University, January 1986.

Sharlin, Harold I., “EDB: A Case Study in the Communication of Health Risk,” Office of Policy Analysis, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, January 1985.

Slovic, Paul, “Informing and Educating the Public About Risk,” Decision Research Report 85–5, November 1984.

Slovic, Paul, Baruch Fischhoff, and Sarah Lichtenstein, “Facts and Fears: Understanding Perceived Risk,” in R.C. Schwing and W. Albers, eds., Societal Risk Assessment: How Safe Is Safe Enough? (New York: Plenum, 1980), pp. 181–216.

Weinstein, Neil D., and Peter M. Sandman, “Recommendations for a Radon Risk Communication Program,” Office of Science and Research, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, November 1985.

Explaining Environmental Risk

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